Tuesday, November 20, 2012

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Improving English Writing Skill Of The Second Grade Students Of SMP Islam Pakis Malang Through K-W-L Method

Buyung Ahmad Pambudi
Islamic University Of Malang

Abstract
This study was classroom action research; it was implemented on VIII of SMP Islam Pakis Malang. The class consists of 27 students. The research was conducted in two cycles, starting from planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The researcher used observation sheet, field note and questionnaire to take information of the students’ activities in the classroom and writing test with using writing rubric was designed by researcher based on the instructional material to know the students’ writing improvement.
The finding of this study showed that the use of K-W-L method that had been implemented by the researcher, in this method, the discussion or sharing of solving problem in group or pairs was the most affective in improving students’ writing skill. It revealed that the students’ mean score of the last test was 83. 14.  in which 92% of the students got ≥ 75. Besides improving students writing skill, K-W-L method was proven to have stimulated the students’ enthusiasm, activities and confident during teaching and learning process. From the result above, it showed that the criteria of success had been achieved in this study since the activities in the classroom during the research ran enjoyable and made the students enthusiastic to participate actively.
Implementing K-W-L Method for Teaching Writing involved the following steps: (1). the teacher should create a chart on the blackboard or on an overhead transparency. In addition, the students should have their own chart on which to record information. (2). the teacher and students record these associations in the K column of their charts. This is done until students run out of ideas. Engage students in a discussion about what they wrote in the column. (3). Response “What do you want to know about this topic?” Write in the W column.  (4) Teacher asks students to focus on ideas.  (5). Discuss the information about topic, write in the W column. 6. Reorganize what have written in L column.

Key words: Writing Skill, K-W-L (know, want, learned) Method

Introduction
English language becomes international language, and so there are many countries made English as one of the main subject in their school education curriculum. Including at Indonesia, English language have become second language and input in national test, In English language academic level become to general subject. Thus the teaching and learning of English have become important issue in Indonesia ( Lengkawati, 2004). Teaching English in Indonesia is focused on the ability of student’s communication. The communication can be in oral and or written forms. The learner should be able to learn the four language skills, namely: listening, speaking, reading and writing (Depdiknas, 2003:6). As one of the four language skills, writing has always occupied place in most English language course. One of the reasons is that more and more people need to learn to write in English for occupational or academic purposes. English department students, especially, need to learn writing and prepare for the final academic assignment, thesis writing. This, in terms of student’s needs, integrated in writing is necessary. Writing is one of the important skills in teaching English. It has always occupied place in most English language course. One of the reasons is that more and more people need to learn writing in English for occupational or academic purpose. To write well, people must have good capabilities in writing. More ever, someone who wants to write the essay or story must know the steps in writing process and aspects of writing. The writer must be able to organize the ideas to construct the sentences, to use punctuation and spelling well. Besides, they must be able to arrange the writing into cohesive and coherent paragraphs and text. Teaching method are needed in teaching learning process in learning English as a Foreign Language ( EFL) especially in teaching writing. Method is treated at the level of design in which the roles of teachers’ learners and instructional materials are specified. The students usually get difficulties in starting their writing, On the one hand, it stimulates thinking, complex students to concentrate and organize their ideas, and cultivates their ability to summarize, analyze, and criticize. The researcher tries to conduct another method; this method is KWL (Know-Want-Learned).  The KWL (Know-Want-Learned) method is a very popular for taking note and student will enjoy because K-W-L make activate their prior knowledge and help them use an insight. They will also extend their K-W-L (Know-Want-Learned) chart to confirm the accuracy of their prior insight. The researcher wants to conduct an action research to improve students’ writing skill using K-W-L (know, want, learned). The title of this study is Improving English Writing Skill of the Second Grade Students of SMP Islam Pakis Malang through K-W-L Method. Questions considered include: How the K-W-L (Know-Want-Learned) Method can improve English Writing Skill of The Second Grade Students of SMP Islam Pakis Malang?

Method
The research design employed for this research is classroom action research (CAR). The procedures of the research consisted of four main steps: planning of the action, implementation, observation, and reflection.
The classroom action research was conducted improve English writing of the second grade students through K-W-L Method. The implementation of this classroom action research was based on the lesson plan prepared before the action.
K-W-L Method was conducted by using these steps:
1. The teacher should create a chart on the blackboard or on an overhead transparency. In addition, the students should have their own chart on which to record information.
2. The teacher and students record these associations in the K column of their charts. This is done until students run out of ideas. Engage students in a discussion about what they wrote in the column.
3. Response “What do you want to know about this topic?” write in the W column.
4. Teacher asks students to focus on ideas.
5. Discuss the information about topic, write in the W column.
6. Reorganize what have written in L column.
In conducting this research, the researcher used qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data was taken from the students participation in writing activity and answering. The students’ data are got the result of observation and field-note about the method apply during the teaching and learning process in a cycle. On the other hand, the students’ improvements of K-W-L was taken from test. The quantitative  data was presented in the form of students’ mean score.
The data collected was analyzed qualitative and quantitative. To see the students activity and involvement during the teaching learning process, the researcher analyzes and presents the data qualitative. So, the researcher got the answer by analyzing the data based on the explanation and conclusion obtained from the observation sheet, field note and students’ responses. Meanwhile, to see the students improvement on K-W-L method was taken  from test, the data was in the form of quantitative. The researcher stoped the cycle when the mean score of post test is 75 in the level of good.
 To analyze the qualitative data, especially obtained from the questionnaire, the writer used:
Percentage formula:    P = %
P          : Percentage
F          : The frequency answers
N         : The number of students 

The data from the test was analized by using calculating the mean score. To obtain the mean score use the following: 


 



Where:          = Mea
 f      = Sum of the score                              
                 f       = Frequency                                                      
                 x      = Score                                                           
 ∑f       = Total of frequency

Findings
The findings were obtained from the observation sheet, field note and test during the action. The goals of the research were to find the real fact that happened. The explanations of data discuss about data of cycle 1 and II.
1.      The result of questionnaire showed that most of the students enjoy, comfort, more active and enthusiasm in teaching writing by using K-W-L method. It could be seen from that there were 85% answer yes, 15% answers no.
  1. The result of the test showed that the students’ writing skill improved. It could be seen that means score of the students’ writing skill in this cycle I was 74.25 with the lowest score 65 and the highest score 90 and 8 students failed to fulfill the minimum mastery learning standard in criteria of success was 75. The percentage of the student who got score ≥ 75 was 70%. Based on the criteria of success 75% students are able to write English with score 75. The test of the second cycle showed that the students writing skill improved. It can be seen that students mean score in pre-test was 63.12 with the lowest score was 40 And the highest score was 75 while the students’ mean score in the first cycle was 74.25 with the lowest score 65 and the highest score was 90, and then, the students’ mean score in the second cycle was 83.14 with the lowest score 70 and the highest score was 95 and 2 students failed to fulfill the minimum mastery learning standard in criteria of success was 75. Furthermore, it could be said that the result of the cycle had been fulfilled the criteria of success of this study that 75 % students had to get ≥ 75(See appendix 7d). In other word, the researcher didn’t need to continue to the next cycle.
  2. The field notes the researcher got the conclusion that the data from the first meeting, the students had just known to the K-W-L method. Then they still needed to the researcher’s guidance and control. In the next meeting of the students had tried to write and had minimized mistake in writing English. It could be concluded that the students were more improve in writing English because K-W-L was not strange any more for them. The result of field note showed the students feel happy and enthusiast on K-W-L implement. The students was not confuse at the determine idea so their writing improved.
  3. The observation sheet at the first and second meeting. Students enjoy the teaching and learning process. The researcher found from the observation sheet that the students’ activeness and confident improved in each meeting. The observation sheet showed that in the second cycle the students improved in each meeting. The students are confident when discussion. Students are not confused in writing. Students are focus on teacher explanation. Students enjoy the teaching and learning process. The researcher found from the observation sheet that the students’ activeness and confident improved in each meeting.

Discussion
Analizing the data of the writing tests’ scores from test, it was proven that teaching writing using K-W-L method improved students writing skill. The mean score of students score in pre-test 63. 12 while the mean score in cycle I 74. 25 and the mean score in cycle II was 83. 14. That was increasing score every step.
The observation sheet and field note showed that the students’ quality of learning activity in the class was improved day by day. They felt enjoy and enthusiasm during the teaching and learning process. And also all students active to ask and answer the question coming from the researcher and their friends. According to Glazer (1998) This Method can help students feel more comfortable with their comprehension of a subject because it goes through each step separately so that comes easier.
The students’ personal response through the questionnaire indicates that the students were motivated to write English because all the activities of the K-W-L method involved and forced all students to write. In other, the students’ response that this method was enjoyable improved their writing. According to Jabons (2003) Aspect internal and external factor shall be recognized by writer, it helps to develop writing skill that is done gets to be gotten by result well.
The next steps was discussion or sharing of solving problem in pairs that very involved and forced students to write, furthermore all students had to write although at first meeting they still confuse to explore their ideas and organizing idea but day by day they were accustomed to this method so their writing skill improved. In pair and group work students can write together in their writing job, research take apart in information-gap activities. They can write their experience, knowledge, perceptions and concept.  Stone and Miller (1991) Stated Students will learn to use a K-W-L to activate their prior knowledge and help them what they learned. They can also extend their K-W-L chart to confirm the accuracy of their prior knowledge and of what they learn.  And also it was proven that solving problem in pairs and group in teaching and learning English because it could help students to increase their writing skill. According to Slavin (2005:40) Said that potential barriers to cooperative learning, there is one important potential obstacle to be avoided if you want to run an effective cooperative learning are instructional.
From the statement above, it showed that the use of K-W-L not only improved students’ writing skill of the second grade students at SMP Islam Pakis Malang but also enhance actively their involvement in the teaching and learning process.

Conclusions
Based on research findings, it can be concluded that K-W-L method can improve students’ Writing Skill. the improvement of the student mean score of the last test was 83, 14, It the result of mean score have fulfilled criteria of success. This research success to increase writing skill through the steps of K-W-L method here:
  1. Teacher divides students into pairs
  2. The teacher should create a chart on the blackboard or on an overhead transparency. In addition, the students should have their own chart on which to record information.
  3. The teacher and students record these associations in the K column of their charts. This is done until students run out of ideas. Engage students in a discussion about what they wrote in the column.
  4. Response “What do you want to know about this topic?” write in the W column.
  5. Teacher asks students to focus on ideas.
  6. Discuss the information about topic, write in the W column.
  7. Reorganize what have written in L column.
From the activities of K-W-L method, especially in the last cycle, there is increasing significant score on previous study. Also the researcher emphasizes on the students discussed or shared of solving problem in pairs or group that can improve students writing skill. The researcher also becomes guide to help them in doing discussions. Furthermore, this method also allowed students to produce English writing with the appropriate the good writing  in discussing while toward the students solving problem is needed to check students’ understanding and comprehended.
Besides, K-W-L Method in the steps can increase student writing skill for cast experience and science before study deeper material. Student got effort digs up all their exercise and science concerns while learning process.
Suggestion For English Teacher
            The studentr in grade eight are in transition between children to the teenagers. They have high desire to know something new in their live. It is very important to the teacher improved their method to make the students enjoy in the class, interesting in the English subject and happy to do teaching and learning activity. The conventional method is needed in some situation. Moreover, in other situation the teacher should more creative in utilizes method. One of the methods is K-W-L, K-W-L method makes the students relax and also make the classroom atmosphere alive and enjoyable, and so the students will be enthusiasm and not bored during the teaching and learning process. In teaching writing, it will be better for teacher use K-W-L Method because this method is one of learning method emphasizes on the importance for science background.
Suggestion For Future Researchers
            This research was found that K-W-L method able to increase English writing skill. The researcher realizes that this study is limited and far from perfectness. So, the next researcher can also apply experimental research to prove this method effectiveness in writing skill.

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